CCTV (closed-circuit television) is a TV system in which signals are not publicly distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes. CCTV relies on strategic placement of cameras, and observation of the camera’s input on monitors somewhere. Because the cameras communicate with monitors and/or video recorders across private coaxial cable runs or wireless communication links, they gain the designation “closed-circuit” to indicate that access to their content is limited by design only to those able to see it. Older CCTV systems used small, low-resolution black and white monitors with no interactive capabilities. Modern CCTV displays can be color, high-resolution displays and can include the ability to zoom in on an image or track something (or someone) among their features. Talk CCTV allows an overseer to speak to people within range of the camera’s associated speakers.
CCTV is commonly used for a variety of purposes, including:
• Maintaining perimeter security in medium- to high-secure areas and installations.
• Observing behavior of incarcerated inmates and potentially dangerous patients in medical facilities.
• Traffic monitoring.
• Overseeing locations that would be hazardous to a human, for example, highly radioactive or toxic industrial environments.
• Building and grounds security.
• Obtaining a visual record of activities in situations where it is necessary to maintain proper security or access controls (for example, in a diamond cutting or sorting operation; in banks, casinos, or airports).
CCTV is finding increasing use in law-enforcement, for everything from traffic observation (and automated ticketing) to observation of high-crime areas or neighborhoods. Such use of CCTV technology has fueled privacy concerns in many parts of the world, particularly in those areas in the UK and Europe where it has become a routine part of police procedure.


A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion – unauthorized entry – into a building or other area such as a home or school. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as personal protection against intruders. Security alarms in residential areas show a correlation with decreased theft. Car alarms likewise help protect vehicles and their contents. Prisons also use security systems for control of inmates.

Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglary protection; combination systems provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion alarm systems may also be combined with closed-circuit television surveillance (CCTV) systems to automatically record the activities of intruders, and may interface to access control systems for electrically locked doors. Systems range from small, self-contained noisemakers, to complicated, multirally systems with computer monitoring and control. It may even include two-way voice which allows communication between the panel and Monitoring station.

♦ Design

1. Premises control unit (PCU), Alarm Control Panel (ACP), or simply panel: The “brain” of the system, it reads sensor inputs, tracks arm/disarm status, and signals intrusions. In modern system, this is typically one or more computer circuit boards inside a metal enclosure, along with a power supply.
2. Sensors: Devices which detect intrusions. Sensors may be placed at the perimeter of the protected area, within it, or both. Sensors can detect intruders by a variety of methods, such as monitoring doors and windows for opening, or by monitoring unoccupied interiors for motions, sound, vibration, or other disturbances.
3. Alerting devices: These indicate an alarm condition. Most commonly, these are bells, sirens, and/or flashing lights. Alerting devices serve the dual purposes of warning occupants of intrusion, and potentially scaring off burglars. These devices may also be used to warn occupants of a fire or smoke condition.
4. Keypads: Small devices, typically wall-mounted, which function as the human-machine interface to the system. In addition to buttons, keypads typically feature indicator lights, a small multi-character display, or both.etc.
5. Interconnections between components. This may consist of direct wiring to the control unit, or wireless links with local power supplies.

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